Follow the Math:
- The breeding cycle for a monkey is 6 years
- The ratio of harmful mutations to beneficial mutations is a million to one (see note 1 below)
- The number of mutations per generation is known to be about 300 per generation (see note 2 below)
- It would therefore take 3,300 generations for each beneficial mutation to appear
- That’s about 20,000 years per beneficial mutation
- In the six million years since we “departed from monkeys” we would have generated 300 beneficial mutations and 300 million harmful mutations
- We are 150 million nucleotides different from monkeys. 300 doesn’t cut it.
- In addition, those 300 mutations are randomly scattered across 3 billion nucleotides,not together
- In addition, those 300 mutations usually only jam existing functions on or off
- 300 million harmful mutations is 10% of the genome, enough to cause extinction
- We did not come from monkeys!
In the 1930’s, in an effort to save evolutionary theory from the rediscovery of Mendelian inheritance and a new-found awareness of mutational damage, influential geneticists such as Ronald Fisher, Sewall Wright and John Haldane suggested mutations must fall into a typical bell curve, with half deleterious and half beneficial. Because they believed in the prime axiom of evolution, they assumed the deleterious half are then eliminated via natural selection, while the beneficial mutations cause ever upward evolutionary advancement.
Fisher’s knowledge of genetics was rudimentary compared to our current understanding. We now know the real ratio of deleterious to beneficial mutations. In 1998 Phillip Gerish and Richard Lenski estimated the ratio of beneficial mutations to deleterious mutations to be about 1,000,000:1 That figure is not a typo, only one single beneficial mutation to about one million deleterious mutations. This is much closer to common sense and light years away from the assumptions described above. By 1979 geneticist Mootoo Kimura no longer even bothered to record any beneficial mutations on graphs in his research papers. This outrageous ratio was again confirmed by Santiago Elena in 1998, by Thomas Bataillon in 2000, and again by Bataillon and Bailey in 2014 . Unfortunately you will not find this hard science on popular evolutionary websites.
“Every time human DNA is passed from one generation to the next it accumulates 100–200 new mutations, according to a DNA-sequencing analysis of the Y chromosome.”
However, this number is still not high enough as tit doesn’t mention most of the eight types of mutational damage that is occurring to our DNA. Here are the numbers for some of the others.
Grant Southerland estimates there are as many micro-satellite DNA regional mutations as point mutations. This will add another hundred mutations to the figure of 75-175. Deletion and insertion mutations are relatively few but cause much more damage as they affect more nucleotides at once. They raise the number of mutations per person per generation by another 100. Duplications contribute between 2 and 6 more mutations and are often large scale in nature. Inversions and trans-locations raise the figure astronomically higher. One recent study put the total figure at around 300 mutations per person per generation. So, the world’s leading human geneticists are telling us that the real mutation rate must therefore be somewhere between 100 and 1,000 mutations per person, per generation. What’s more, these mutations are accumulating at this rate in every person, every generation in a linear fashion, like spelling mistakes building up in each reprint of an instruction manual, and only one in a million is beneficial.
To read more, go to my essay called Human Genetic Entropy