Genetic Entropy: Mutations

Evolutionary theory states that: The natural selection of unguided random mutations has taken life from that first cellular organism to the great genetic diversity we see on our planet today. Studies of human genetics have now proven this fundamental belief wrong. lets just look at the half of that claim that deals with mutations:

Mutations are accidental copying errors in the DNA and RNA transcription processes that lead to structural change. Evolution needs a lot of these mutations to be beneficial. Due to recent genetic sequencing we now know the real ratio of harmful to beneficial mutations. Estimates vary from 100,000 to 1,000,000 to one. Multiple researchers have confirmed these ratios. This million-to-one ratio leaves evolutionary development with both too little material to work with and too little time, even given billions of years.

What about those one in a million that are beneficial? All examples of beneficial mutations quoted in the scientific literature involve loss, jamming or mere duplication of genetic information. In all of the world’s scientific literature there is not yet a single, clear cut example of a mutation actually adding extra beneficial complexity to an organism.

Mutations are accumulating rapidly in humans. Nobel Prize winner, Manfred Eigen estimated that if we are accumulating more than one per person per generation we will eventually become extinct. Unfortunately we are accumulating an absolute minimum of 200 per person per generation, probably many more. Point mutations add between 75 and 175. Micro-satellite DNA regional mutations add another 75-175. Deletion and insertion mutations add another 100. Duplication mutations contribute between 2 and 6 more mutations. Inversions and translocation mutations raise the figure astronomically higher.

The human male Y chromosome and all human mitochondria are of special concern. They undergo asexual replication and are therefore subject to ever-increasing and rapid mutational load. Sexual recombination cannot dilute these mutations. They are a ticking genetic time bomb.

Most of this mountain of harmful mutations are tiny so will only have a near-neutral effect on genetic fitness. A smaller number will be minor, visible but not stopping reproduction. A rare few will be major, stopping reproduction altogether. Those near-neutral and minor mutations will accumulate every single generation forever as they are not filtered out by natural selection. Eventually they will begin to cause great damage and lead to extinction of the human race.

The World Health Organisation estimates that 10,000 diseases are now known to be caused by mutations. The number is increasing annually. This dire problem has led human geneticist Alexey Kondrashov to title a 1995 research paper: Contamination of the genome by very slightly deleterious mutations: why have we not died 100 times over?

We now know that the accumulation of all these mutations has already resulted in 3.6 million nucleotides of the human DNA now becoming corrupt, about one in a thousand. Recent sequencing of the genome of a male Eskimo that lived only 4,000 years ago shows he only had around 450,000 nucleotide mutations. This equates to over 15,000 extra mutations per generation in the time since he lived, so a rapid deterioration event in the human genome has obviously taken place sometime in our recent past. Such rapid deterioration of the human genome is clear evidence of genetic entropy.

Follow the logic to its conclusion: DNA is the rarest and most exquisite of pristine information codes in the universe. The ratio of harmful to beneficial copying errors in this system is a vastly lopsided. There is not enough deep time for those rare beneficial mutations to accumulate. When those exceedingly rare beneficial mutations arise, they do not add any genetic complexity. Most harmful mutations are building up every generation because they are near-neutral and invisible to selection. There is no junk DNA to hide near-neutral mutations. Genetic entropy is inevitable. We are not evolving, we are degenerating.

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Kevin