Can mutations and natural selection turn a chimpanzee gene into a human gene via evolutionary processes? Unless this can happen, evolution does not exist. We will use 6 million years as our benchmark time limit. We will also assume the new gene is tiny, with just 1,000 nucleotides. Here are 10 genetic reasons why it’s impossible:
1. How to get started
Evolution has no pre-programmed outcome it is heading toward. From the very first piece of new mutational information we have disturbed the existing message and have no pre-existing mandate or message for it to work toward. Having random letters begin to fall into an existing text can never enhance the message, or change the language.
2. Most mutations can’t be selected
Let’s assume for a moment that we actually have produced a mutation containing more complex information. Most mutations, whether good or bad, fall within Mootoo Kimura’s “effectively neutral mutation” zone. None of these mutations can be selected in or out.
3. The problem of securing a specific mutation site
At 300 mutations per generation, we would have to wait some 3,000 generations for a single nucleotide location to mutate, or 18,000 years, and many millions of years for just two to turn up right next to each other.
4. Ongoing genetic degeneration
In the meantime during 6 million years those 300 harmful mutations per generation have multiplied to around 300 million. This is enough to wipe out a species. “Haldane’s Dilemma” acknowledges the futility of waiting for enough mutations in the evolutionary timeframe. His dilemma is still unresolved today.
5. Genetic drift, noise and recessiveness
For arguments sake let’s assume a 10 nucleotide sequence is now locked into our first chimpanzee. It must then spread to the whole population. Natural selection must now actively select individuals with this mutational message and overcome the forces of recessiveness, genetic drift and biological noise. Multiple extinctions are to be expected before success.
6. Then there are linkage blocks
Linkage blocks such as genes and chromosomes are passed on to offspring in their entirety. They destroy the visibility of individual mutations. A study by S.B. Gabriel in 2002 found that there is “little evidence for the recombination of haploptypes (linkage blocks) since the origin of modern man”.
7. Fitness valleys
Let’s assume our new super-simple gene is semi-complete and fixed in the whole population. We now enter what is called a “fitness valley”, when the genetic fitness of a species is severely compromised. Natural selection is therefore more likely to eliminate these individuals. Evolutionary theory constantly requires the endless crossing of deep fitness valleys. Natural selection becomes its enemy, not friend.
8. Irreducible complexity
Only when the whole gene comes together and is complete will it perform a new and superior function. As the number of component parts increases linearly, the number of interactions increases exponentially. In addition, for every level of complexity in any biological function there is 10-100 fold more complexity in the genetic instructions behind them.
9. Selection cost
Let’s now suppose we have our new gene. Do we have enough excess chimps/people to fund all those who carry ever-increasing mutational defects? The short answer is no, and large numbers of human geneticists, such as Campbell & Eichler, Charlesworth, Haldane, Higgins, Loewe, Lynch, Muller, Nachman, Parsons, Rands, ReMine and now John Sanford are concerned about it.
This leads to the final problem: The rapid genetic degeneration of the newly acquired features. The mutation rate is 300 per individual per generation and humans differ by 150 million nucleotides from chimps. After 650,000 generations, 10-15 million nucleotides will have degenerated. Not only would we be far inferior to our ancestors, we would more than likely have become extinct!
Evolution cannot create a simple gene of 1,000 nucleotides in the time we are supposed to have evolved from chimpanzees, let alone a whole set of more sophisticated genes and the 150 million nucleotides that differentiate us from chimps. Recent sequencing of human and chimpanzee Y chromosomes confirms this. Evolutionists have cleverly treated adaptation via information loss, as if it was information gain. Evolutionary theory is like Communist dogma; eloquent and all-encompassing, but the opposite of reality. We never evolved, but we are deteriorating rapidly.