This seminar is a book review of “Starlight, Time and the New Physics”. This book, written by Dr John Harnett from the University of Western Australia, makes startling statements about the nature and age of the universe. As a physicist and cosmologist working from a Biblical world view, Hartnett brings fresh ideas to the debate on the origin of the universe that lie outside humanist cosmologies such as the big bang. As a result, his investigations have solved quite a number of major problems that plague the standard big bang theory of the origin of the universe.
However, this book is a combination of two minds. Hartnett builds his ideas on a new and radical cosmological theory developed in the 1990’s by the Israeli theoretical physicist Moshe Carmeli. Carmeli took Einstein’s theories of general and special relativity and for the first time ever, extended them into the Cosmos. The result of Carmeli’s extension of relativity theory and Hartnett’s logical extensions of this breakthrough is a theory of the universe that is not only consistent with the Biblical framework, but intellectually superior to all current competing theories of the universe, including the big bang. This sounds like a big claim, so read on.
PROBLEMS FOR BIBLICAL COSMOLOGISTS
Hartnett begins his book by explaining the dilemma faced by creationist cosmologists leading up to Carmeli’s breakthrough research. The Bible clearly states that the universe was made in six earth days, with the stars and galaxies being made on the fourth day. Using the stated genealogies of the Old Testament, it also strongly points to a universe that is only about 6,000-7,000 years old. This puts it in direct conflict with starlight observations coming to us from all over the universe that show us beyond doubt that the universe is at least 13 billion years old. Creationists have tackled this problem over the years with some fanciful theories such as the slowing of the speed of light over time, or the distant starlight being created along its path toward us. All such theories to date have lacked observational evidence and credibility. However, During the 1980’s a creationist cosmologist, Russell Humphries developed a model of the universe where all matter was created inside a white hole, which is a black hole running in reverse, spitting matter out instead of sucking it in. This was the first creationist model to raise the issue of time dilation as a possible solution to the Genesis/starlight discrepancy.
Time dilation is the concept that time can run at different speeds in different locations, as per Einstein’s discovery that gravity can distort time. A black hole or white hole can distort time by massive amounts due to its massive gravitational forces. Humphrey’s theory has created a lot of discussion among Biblical cosmologists and it is from this insight that Hartnett began to derive his thesis using Moshe Carmeli’s new discoveries.
COSMOLOGIGAL SPECIAL RELATIVITY (CSR)
Hartnett now spends several chapters of his book explaining in laymen’s terms the workings of Moshe Carmeli’s Cosmological relativity Theory. Carmeli’s great contribution to cosmology was to show how Einstein’s theories of relativity apply to the whole universe and not just to the atomic level and our location in space. Einstein’s theory of special relativity deals with physical dimensions, mass and the flow of time associated with fast moving particles. Special relativity successfully predicted that time was not fixed, but was relative to the amount of gravity effecting the movement of objects. It also showed us that the speed of light was the only constant in the universe.
Carmeli believed that, 1: the speed of light was a measure of velocity, 2: that this velocity is increasing and 3: this increasing velocity represented a new dimension in the universe that had not previously been accounted for in any cosmological model. This velocity/expansion dimension takes the place of the time dimension in Einstein’s theory of special relativity and it physically affects galaxies on a grand scale. The effect of acceleration of matter on gravity and hence time is the key to understanding CSR. To make a long story short and a complicated story simple, I will skip the mathematics and just go to the evidence. You are welcome to search the internet if you are into the mathematics and physics of Carmeli’s CSR theory.
The ultimate test of any scientific model is in the success of its predictions in the real world. Here are some of the successful predictions and amazing solutions Carmeli’s CSR theory has come up with in regard to the nature of the universe and the problems besetting big bang cosmology.
1. In CSR, the greater the distance from us, the greater must be the velocity of the expansion of space. Using this concept, Carmeli predicted in 1996 that the velocity/expansion of the universe was accelerating. Some two years later scientists confirmed his prediction.
2. CSR predicts three stages of cosmic expansion: Initial deceleration, coasting and acceleration. This part of his theory has been successfully applied to the observational brightness of type Ia supernovae, the type used for calibrating distances in the universe.
3. CSR, using velocity/expansion as an extra dimension (length, breadth, depth, time, plus velocity) gives velocity a measurable effect on galaxies due to the gas molecules coupling to the expansion of space as well as the galaxy’s own gravity. This measurable effect correctly explained why the spirals on spiral galaxies spin faster at their extremities than in their centre. Big bang theory cannot explain this anomaly.
4. Because of point three above, CSR also correctly describes the properties of the ever expanding vacuum between galaxies and shows that the vacuum has a measurable effect on particles in surrounding galaxies. This physical effect of the expanding vacuum does away with the need for dark matter and dark energy. These concepts were invented because the visible light coming from distant galaxies was much less than the gravitational affect coming from them. So it was theorised that some unseen and unknown energy force was affecting them. The CSR description of the expanding vacuum as a dimension with influence on matter does away with the need for dark matter/energy. This is an amazing breakthrough for the whole world of cosmology. In the early part of the last century it took Einstein’s “out-of-the-box” theory that gravity distorts time to solve the riddle of the conceptual planet Vulcan, an invisible planet continually hiding behind the sun that was thought to be interfering with the timing of Mercury’s orbit. Einstein showed that it wasn’t an invisible planet effecting Mercury but the gravity of the sun. This same type of puzzle has now been solved on a cosmological scale.
5. CSR has shown that the Hubble Law, which says distance in the universe is proportional to the degree of red-shifted light we see, is not constant. The value of the Hubble Constant within the Hubble law has always been very difficult to measure and varies with distance; hence real world observations have already shown it is not really a constant. Carmeli has solved this problem theoretically by adding a time value which makes the Hubble Constant true across all distances.
6. CSR improves Einstein’s field equations. Einstein showed the world through his field equations that space-time was a product of the geometry and curvature of space, thus time could vary depending on the amount of gravity. Because velocity is now a dimension to the universe it was added to Einstein’s equations in order to correctly understand the large scale structure of the universe. This change led to the conclusion that the geometry of the universe is flat, just as we see in our part of the universe. It also showed that the universe is never empty of matter.
THE ASSUMPTIONS BEHIND CSR
Because we were not there when the universe began, we have to assume certain things happened. So, all cosmological theories carry with them assumptions as to the nature of reality. If we make mistakes with our assumptions then our model will become flawed. This is clearly what has happened with the big bang theory as shown with the issue of dark matter/energy. So let us look at a few of Carmeli’s CSR assumptions to get a handle on where he was coming from.
1. CSR assumes the universe is never empty of matter, but has a property that Carmeli called “effective matter density” that makes it expand.
2. CSR breaks from the big bang theory in the all-important area of homogeny. Homogeny, or the cosmological principle, is a foundational big bang assumption developed by Edwin Hubble, then consequently adopted by all big bang theorists Its validity is critical to its workings. Homogeny takes the view that the universe is the same in every direction and each and every viewer of the universe will see the same set of variables, regardless of location. The simple way of saying this is that the universe has no centre and no edge. This assumption was developed after Hubble discovered that every galaxy seemed to be moving away from the earth because its light was redshifted. Redshifted light only occurs when it is moving away from the observer. The issue for Hubble was that all galaxies displayed various amounts of redshifted light. None showed blueshift. This meant all galaxies, in every direction were moving away from the earth. This could only happen if the earth, or at least the Milky Way, was at the every epicenter of the universe! This was a conclusion that strongly suggested divine design was behind the construction of the universe. As an atheist Hubble rejected this conclusion, developed the cosmological principle to avoid it, and the rest is history. Acceptance of Hubble’s assumption has led big bang theory down the dark matter/energy dead end.
3. Carmeli’s CSR assumes a spherically symmetrical universe with the observer at the centre. This is called isotropy. This is a simple fit with the universal redshift observations just mentioned and the 2dF Digital Sky Survey shown below. Carmeli didn’t play philosophical games with the data as Hubble did. Because of Carmeli’s assumption of a spherically symmetrical universe, CSR can solve problems that the big bang struggles with, such as dark matter and energy. This assumption of isotropy is also used by Hartnett to solve other significant cosmological problems for creationists.
4. One of the more significant assumptions to flow out of the CSR model is the ongoing creation of matter in a stretching universe. This is an outworking of the law of conservation of matter and energy. This law says matter can be changed into energy (as in an atomic bomb) and energy can be changed into matter (as in quantum fluctuation). big bang theory vigorously denies the possibility that this creation of new matter can take place now, positing instead that all matter was created at the initial big bang. The iron grip of this assumption is so strong that any mainline astronomer who questions this it will be denied funding by those institutions that control applications for time on the largest telescopes.
5. CSR assumes the universe is likened to a gravity hill due to most galaxies being near the centre of a symmetrical universe. Big bang theory assumes the opposite due to most matter being on the leading edge of the inflation of expanding space. It assumes this because the leading edge of the universe is the home of the mysterious massively redshifted quasars (quasi-stellar objects).
HARTNETT FINE-TUNES CSR
In the latter chapters of the book John Hartnett takes the CSR theory developed by Carmeli and applies it to the Biblical description and timescale of creation. Hartnett takes CSR and the assumptions Carmeli used but applies his own research and unique perspective to arrive at some startling conclusions about the nature of time. All his conclusions use standard physics or the new physics of CSR. This is Hartnett’s genius.
Carmeli’s theory assumes the earth sits at, or near the centre, of a symmetrical universe. Hartnett demonstrates, through evidence recently obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Survey, that the earth does indeed appear to be near the centre of the universe. These two surveys of hundreds of thousands of galaxies clearly show a higher density universe near us at the point of measurement. They show a clear drop off in galaxy density toward the edge of the universe. They also show us that galaxies are not randomly distributed but are layered in giant concentric rings like in an onion, with the Milky Way at the epicenter. This evidence is not only helpful in proving Carmeli correct, but it also destroys the cosmological principle popularized by Hubble. If the cosmological principal is wrong, then we are very close to the centre of the universe. But this strongly suggests a unique and divine creation so is not going to be popular in conventional circles, regardless of the superiority of the evidence. As the scientific community already knows, it takes generations of mounting evidence to change deeply held paradigms.
The 2dF digital Sky Survey is posted below so you can check these statements.
Hartnett then moves on the issue of ongoing galaxy creation. Using several of at least 70 known examples, he uses the findings of Halton Arp and Margaret & Geoffrey Burbidge to show us clear evidence of recently observed galaxy creation through the ejection of material from parent galaxies. He contends that this is the birthing process for quasars. This is used to further bolster the effectiveness of CSR by giving observational verification of Carmeli’s assumption that cosmic expansion results in the ongoing creation of new matter today.
Below is pictured Galaxy 0313-192, which was the first galaxy to be seen ejecting large quantities of new material, here seen as a radio jet. In big bang theory this should not be happening.
Hartnett moves next to the topic of quasars. Quasars have the highest redshift values of all objects in the universe, so are placed at the outer edge of the universe under standard big bang interpretations (the greater the redshift, the greater the distance). The universe is literally ringed by objects the big bang theory cannot describe. Their formation and place in the universe is unknown in the big bang understanding of things. Carmeli, Arp and Hartnett, on the other hand, give them a place and function embedded within the expanding fabric of space. Redshift can also be caused by gravity, and these quasars are events involving enormous gravitational forces. Although theoretically acknowledged as valid, gravitational redshift is not accepted in the big bang theory. Redshift is always assumed to be caused by distance. Hartnett suggests extreme redshift comes not necessarily come from distance but from gravity, and illustrates this by showing several images of quasars embedded within nearby galaxies.
Below is an image of Galaxy NGC 7319 showing location of a quasar embedded within the galaxy.
HARTNETT PULLS IT ALL TOGETHER
In the final chapters of the book Hartnett tackles the issue of the expansion of the universe and its implications for time dilation. Although not a book on astronomy, the Bible clearly describes the stretching of the stars (Psalm 104:2, Isaiah 40:22, 42:5, and 44:24). So this is used as a starting point toward a unique conclusion. This stretching of space, so crucial to the big bang, and embedded in CSR, creates an opportunity for a one-off time dilation event of cosmic proportions.
We already know from Einstein’s theories, and from recent atomic clock observations that gravity does indeed distort time. Hartnett builds atomic clocks as part of his day job as a university researcher and lecturer. We also know from standard relativity theory that the event horizon of a black hole massively dilates time. The event horizon is the point at which light can no longer escape but is held in by the massive gravity of the black hole. As an example, if an astronaut could move through this event horizon time would massively speed up and he would see his friends back on earth age and die in an instant. His friends on earth would see him almost motionless, all because time is massively slowed for him due to gravity. Amazingly, both time scales are perfectly accurate and normal for the person experiencing them at the different locations.
Hartnett now extends Carmeli’s concept that velocity, like gravity, is a dimension affecting space and takes it to its logical conclusion, a stunning conclusion! Hartnett could see that such a massive acceleration event for the entire universe, as per CSR, would also create a massive time dilation event for the entire universe. He suggests that this expansion of the universe and concurrent time dilation could have occurred during one earth day, specifically day four of the creation week.
This is in no way a far-fetched idea as the big bang theory already contains a near instantaneous inflation of the universe just after the initial big bang. It is suggested this had to take place because of two reasons. Firstly, the background temperature for the entire universe is a very smooth 2.7 degrees K (above absolute zero). No bumps or lumps. The universe is a perfectly smooth 2.7 degrees K, in every single direction out to 13 billion light years each way from earth! The only way for this to occur is if the very fabric of space rapidly expanded. The diffusion of heat over 13 billion years on its own cannot account for this anomaly. Secondly, because of the mass of the universe, without a second near instantaneous inflation, there would have been a very speedy gravitational collapse back into a massive black hole. We exist, so there must have been a second inflation! Hartnett suggests this inflation event is better explained within a creationist cosmology.
DUAL TIME SCALES SOLVE THE PROBLEM
Now here is where it gets really interesting. If there has been a massive acceleration and inflation of space (velocity event), then there also has to have been a massive dilation of time. You cannot have one without the other. Hartnett’s calculations suggest a time dilation of anything up to a few trillion to one. This means a few trillion days were passing at the edge of the accelerating universe, while only one was passing at the stationary centre. Because we now know we are near the centre of the universe then this massive expansion event would have occurred outside of the earth, and probably the solar system, possibly even the Milky Way Galaxy. Thus time would literally stand still here while it took off in the rest of the universe. The result is a massive time dilation/slowing on earth, with rapid “aging” occurring in the galaxies. Thus, just as in our astronaut example above, a day could pass on earth while more than 13 billion years would have passed in the stars. Bingo, starlight problem solved!
Let me quote Hartnett himself as he explains this concept (page 111):
“Let’s now take special and general relativity as being correct on the local scale and also Carmeli’s cosmological relativity as being correct on the galactic and cosmological scales. Then the only space-time-velocity metric, which involves five dimensions, that can be correct on both the local scale, reproducing the 4D space-time of special and general relativity (SR and GR) and on the cosmological scale, reproducing the 4D space-velocity of cosmological relativity (CSR and CGR), is one that requires that enormous cosmological acceleration and accompanying time dilation has occurred, in the past, between earth clocks and those in the rest of the universe. It logically follows that this means the universe is very young as measured by earth clocks. It only has the appearance of great age because we are biased by the vast size of the universe.”
Now you know why I had to read his book four times!
Hartnett is saying that, armed with Carmeli’s new and superior understandings of the functioning of the universe, which extend Einstein’s theories into the galactic scale, we are FORCED to the conclusion that earth clocks once ran much slower than clocks in the rest of the universe. Thus starlight from the far reaches of the universe, some 13 billion light years away, would have arrived here on earth in a matter of days, if measured by earth clocks. Both earth clocks and cosmic clocks would have merged straight after this inflation event was over so we now see consistent time measurements at both ends of the cosmos. In this scenario the speed of light has not changed, only time. The speed of light continues to be the one constant in the universe. The speed of light measured locally would always be constant. It is the clocks that changed.
This is a truly revolutionary model of the cosmos. It is a perfect marriage between the Biblical position and current observation. If this model is true then the combination of CSR and creationist cosmology now becomes not only intellectually respectable but provides more answers to the real world than competing theories. John Hartnett has thrown down a major challenge to big bang theorists. If he is correct we will still be hearing about this breakthrough for many years to come.