The big bang begins with a quantum fluctuation giving rise to a singularity. This singularity contained all the matter, energy, time and space for the entire universe squashed into a point of infinite temperature and density. Somewhere between 13 and 17 billion years ago, an event occurred than initiated an initial expansion from this singularity. The new and expanding universe then underwent a second near instantaneous inflation by an astronomical amount, to iron out wrinkles and prevent it collapsing in on itself.
The fireball of the big bang produced an expanding cloud of hydrogen gas. The gas eventually collapsed into galaxies and stars. Many generations of stars came and went, each eventually exploding to produce all the heavier elements, which were recycled into succeeding generations of stars. About five billion years ago our sun formed out of the gravitational collapse of one such dust and gas cloud.
The left-over dust and gas from our suns formation slowly condensed into planetesimals. Eventually these grew larger, melted, and formed planets. Our planet, the earth, cooled and the surface hardened. Life formed and very recently you arrived and started reading this article.
That’s the story told in most high schools and universities. But is it true? Is it accurate? Does it match our observations of today’s universe? Below I have listed some of the problems with this story. Read them and then decide for yourself if the big bang is a true story or an excuse to ignore special creation, the only other theory capable of explaining the universe we live in.
1. THE ORIGIN OF THE SINGULARITY
The big bang singularity is said to have come into existence from a quantum fluctuation. Quantum physics (the physics of sub-atomic particles) tells us space is not a vacuum but is inhabited by virtual particles that can jump in and out of existence in rapid succession, exchanging energy for matter. This is used as justification for the existence and beginning of the universe. It could have just “popped” into existence via one of these quantum fluctuations.
- The length of time a quantum fluctuation is in existence is inversely proportional to its mass. If the universe did pop into existence by a quantum fluctuation, because of its sheer size it would have lasted about 10-103 seconds before jumping out of existence again.
- Quantum fluctuations can only occur in an existing vacuum, in existing space. In the hypothetical universe of the big bang, there was no space in existence, so there was no vacuum in which this event could have occurred. Carl Sagan called this “the biggest mystery we know” (“Cosmos”, p246).
- The laws of quantum physics had to be in existence before this event could have occurred. In the hypothetical big bang there were no laws of physics in existence. Nothing existed.
- Quantum fluctuations create equal amounts of matter and anti-matter, so the universe should consist of equal amounts of each. It doesn’t. It only contains matter and energy.
2. THE SINGULARITY AND THE LAWS OF PHYSICS
The big bang theory claims that the universe began as an accidently created “singularity”. This singularity was a point of almost infinite temperature and density that contained all the matter, energy, space and time of the future universe.
- The concept of the singularity is beyond the reach of any and all scientific investigation. All scientific descriptions of the universe begin after the singularity has begun to inflate. If you work backwards in time, all the laws of physics break down before reaching this singularity and are useless for the investigation of such a hypothetical entity. Because you are dealing with an idea that is outside the reach of observational science, the singularity concept is therefore not a scientific concept at all, but a metaphysical (philosophical) concept. This places the singularity in the realm of old fashioned creation stories.
- The closest thing to a singularity in the modern universe is a black hole. Black holes are modern day micro-singularities and they are a thermodynamic dead-end. They are dead stars where all space between the atoms has collapsed and density is almost infinite. Gravity is so intense in a black hole that not even light can escape, hence their name. Nothing escapes. Nothing! This makes them a dead-end for the laws of physics. They are the death of matter, energy and light, not their beginning. There are no known laws or concepts in physics that can point to singularities being the beginning of space and time as we know it.
3. THE INITIAL EXPANSION
The initial “explosion” of the big bang from the singularity flung out all its energy and matter in an instant. One suggested concept to explain this initial expansion is “quantum gravity”. This idea suggests that perhaps the quantum fluctuation that brought the singularity into existence also allowed it to explode out of the grip of its own gravity. Another suggested explanation is that the universe might “bounce”. It could expand from a singularity into a universe. Then it collapses again to a singularity. This process then repeats endlessly. This gives us an infinitely old universe that bounces in and out of existence like a tennis ball.
- Currently we have no workable theory of how the concept of quantum gravity actually works. So we have no idea of what it may be able to explain, even in theory. It is just a hypothetical, metaphysical concept.
- In the same way a ball loses energy with each bounce, so the universe would eventually run out of energy. The bounce theory assumes no energy is lost in each cycle, but the laws of physics tell us that usable energy would dissipate with each bounce. There is also no known law of physics that can produce such persistent theoretical bounces. So we are back to the realm of metaphysics again.
- All four forces of physics hold things together, they do not blow things apart. Gravity holds galaxies, stars and planets together. Electromagnetism holds molecules together. The weak nuclear force holds electrons to atoms. The strong nuclear force holds the nucleus of the atom together. There is no force known to science that can produce this hypothetical cosmic “explosion” that disobeys what currently happens.
4. THE INSTANTANEOUS INFLATION
At a microsecond into the initial expansion of the baby universe, at about 10x -36 seconds into its existence, there occurred a second near instantaneous inflation of the universe by a trillion million times. The reason for this second inflation is because the early big bang was very dense with matter, enough matter to make a hundred billion galaxies, each containing about a hundred billion suns. Any deviations from a perfectly smooth expansion in all directions would have set the stage for uneven distribution of density. This would have led to the early universe quickly collapsing in on itself. It is therefore asserted that a second massive and instantaneous inflation occurred and this inflation explains why the universe didn’t collapse. It is also used to explain why the temperature and density of the universe we observe today is perfectly smooth in all directions.
- This supposed second inflation still predates and disagrees with all the laws of physics. It is only after these inflations are underway that the laws of physics are invoked to explain anything. However, having said that, we are now finally into the realm of observable science because we have ample evidence to show that the universe is actually expanding. All big bang assertions up until now are simply metaphysical attempts at explaining what actually caused this expanding universe we live in.
- Even with this second inflation, an unevenly dispersing universe would have reached its maximum size in an instant and then collapsed again. A perfectly smooth dispersing universe would have rapidly dissipated into drifting atoms of cosmic dust moving further and further apart. To get the perfect universe we live in, that has neither collapsed, nor blown itself into dust, would require an incredible, but accidental, fine tuning of the initial expansion and the second inflation to a mind bogglingly exact rate. This fine tuning is so precise it has been estimated to be only about one particle in every 10120 particles from either side of perfect. This is what physicists call a “flat universe” This is trillions and trillions of times more precise than the most exact machines ever built by humans. This looks much more like design than an accident.
- To complicate things further, this inflating big bang universe is required to have some gravitational irregularities in it or it could not be capable of the localized gravitational collapse needed to produce galaxies and stars later on. A perfectly smooth inflation results in a perfectly smooth cosmic cloud of dust, but no galaxies. An irregular inflation leads to collapse back into the black hole of the singularity. Neither scenario can produce the universe we live in, which has both expansion and galaxies. The only possible explanation left to us is that it was specially created with existing galaxies and stars, which then inflated.
- This second inflation theory neatly explains the problem of today’s perfectly smooth cosmic background temperature of 2.7 degree Kelvin (Minus 270.3 degrees). Thus means the universe is exactly 2.7 degrees above absolute zero in all directions. Under normal conditions it takes time for temperature to equalize over distance. Given our current laws of physics, a 15 to 17 billion year old universe isn’t old enough for the equalization of temperature across its entire 28 billion light years. So the perfectly smooth cosmic background temperature is invoked as the ultimate proof of the second inflation. The reasoning goes like this: In the new and much smaller universe of the initial expansion, space is small enough to allow the mixing and equalizing of temperature. In the instantaneous inflation this equal temperature was inflated along with the rest of the universe to what we see today. It would have been impossible for the temperatures to equalize later because of distance, so there must have been a cosmic inflation. Problem solved. There is a slight problem with this “just so” reasoning. It is called the speed of light, the one constant that we know of in the entire universe. Nothing travels faster than light. The instantaneous inflation theory invokes an already functioning speed of light in the tiny universe, but then massively and absolutely breaks that speed of light to inflate the universe. You can have one or the other of these in the theory, but not both if you want to maintain credibility.
- Did we mention causation? At this stage no scientifically credible cause for the second inflation has ever been suggested. What started it? What caused it? Why did it happen? These are all complete mysteries.
- How about cessation? At this stage no scientifically credible cause for the ending of the second inflation has ever been suggested. Why should it have suddenly stopped? How could it have slowed down? No one knows.
5. THE EMERGING LAWS OF PHYSICS
The laws of physics only emerged after the initial expansion and the instantaneous inflation. The big bang theory acknowledges the lack of physical laws prior to this. But because there is and was an expansion then there is adequate reason to extrapolate this expansion back to an initial singularity.
- As mentioned previously, the laws of quantum mechanics would have had to be in operation or a hypothetical quantum fluctuation would have been impossible.
- As well as this, the four forces of physics hold things together. None of them has the properties to blow things apart.
- The laws of thermodynamics explain energy and its flow in the universe. The first law of thermodynamics states that matter cannot be created or destroyed. Matter can be converted into energy and back to matter, but not destroyed. The total amount of energy remains constant. The second law of thermodynamics states that, in the absence of any interference, the usable energy in a system always runs down through dispersal. For example, a hot cup of coffee left on the bench always gets colder, not hotter, as the energy in the liquid dissipates. Now follow this logic: If the total amount of energy in the universe is limited because it cannot be created or destroyed, as per the first law, then the universe could not create itself. Also, if the amount of usable energy in the universe is decreasing constantly, as per the second law, then the universe is not infinitely old. It had to have a beginning, or it would have already reached a universal heat-death. Put these two statements together and you have this logical conclusion: The universe had a beginning, but could not create itself.
The logic behind these two laws of physics is disturbing for the big bang theory. This is because the theory has no mechanism to explain to us where the energy for the big bang came from in the first place. It has no causal explanation for the origin of the universe’s energy. Everything that has a beginning has a cause, but the big bang cannot provide a cause. It cannot be self-caused because nothing can create itself! The only cause left to us is special creation. But this conclusion is deemed unacceptable by most of the world’s scientists. That’s why the big bang theory exists.
6. THE CREATION OF STARS AND GALAXIES
The big bang hypothesis posits that the expanding gas cloud of the early universe was largely uniform but nevertheless contained minor density fluctuations or ripples caused by the earlier quantum fluctuation. Over eons of time these ripples created increases in density large enough to trigger localized gravity collapses in the expanding gas cloud. These localized collapses led to the creation of galaxies, stars and planets.
- These density fluctuations are basically shock waves that jolt the cosmic expansion away from its smoothness. Quantum gravity is still only a concept, and the great inflation of the universe actually smoothed out all the initial shockwaves of the initial big bang. So some other shock wave is usually invoked as the cause for star formation. The solution most often cited is supernova explosions. The trouble is that supernovas are exploding stars. So scientists are suggesting you need exploding stars to create stars. This is a circular argument.
- The problem of getting an expanding gas cloud to reverse direction and form galaxies is immense. The universe we live in is made of galaxies, stars and planets, not theories. Without a credible theory of this aspect of the universe we really don’t have much of a universe. So let us see what the experts say:
- NASA has said “We have no direct evidence of how galaxies were formed, or how galaxies evolved” (Marcus Clown, “Let There Be Light” New Scientist 157, Feb 7, 1998)
- “There shouldn’t be galaxies out there at all, and even if there are galaxies, they shouldn’t be grouped together the way they are…[it] is one of the thorniest problems in cosmology…it is hard to convey the frustration that this simple fact induces among scientists.” (J. Trefil, “The Dark Side of the Universe”, p.35)
- In Stephen Hawking’s 2002 published lectures entitled “The Theory of Everything” galaxy formation is still on his list of unsolved problems. But it is at the bottom of his list of concerns! Stephen Hawking is Cambridge University’s leading cosmologist. His suggestion for the formation of galaxies, as laid out on page 188 of “The Universe In a Nutshell” is that they might have formed through the influence of dark matter on a brane world parallel to our own. Parallel to our own? Draw your own conclusions.
- The reason why the frustration levels are so high is because any theory of galaxy formation is the opposite of the expansion of a growing cloud of dust and gas. Any collapsing process will be automatically cancelled out because of the expansion process! Professor Joseph Silk, Oxford University’s leading cosmologist, suggests the solution is for this process to go on for a really long time! All theories of galaxy formation up to the present are little more than a stab in the dark.
- Big bang theory proposes that there have been many generations of stars birthing and dying to form the heavier elements from the initial hydrogen of the early universe. In theory however, these countless generations of supernova explosions and gravitational collapse of stars would also have produced by now as many black holes as there are stars, gobbling up all the matter in the universe. But the matter is still here and to date we have only found a few dozen black holes. There may be massive black holes in the centre of galaxies, but stars have to form in the spirals, not the core. The numbers black holes required by big bang theory do not exist.
- Supernovas age in specific sequences. We observe them occurring every 25 years or so. But there are only about 205 supernovas in our galaxy. They expand according to a particular three stage sequence so we can measure their age. Stage one lasts for about 300 years with stage two lasting up to 120,000 years. Stage three lasts millions of years. Thus supernovas are an excellent tool for measuring the age of our galaxy. All of the supernovas in our Milky Way are stage one or two supernovas, none are stage three. So they point to a galaxy that is incredibly young. If the galaxy was billions of years old there should be at least 7,500 supernovas, most in the third stage of the sequence. They aren’t there. They simply do not exist. This calls into question the entire 15 to17 billion year age of the universe held so dearly by big bang theorists.
- If the hypothetical process of localized gravity collapse did indeed occur, what would it produce? If a dust and gas cloud the size needed to form a galaxy collapsed in on itself, then gravity would do what gravity always does, it will collapse into a black hole. There are billions of stars in a typical galaxy and it only takes one star of 100 times the mass of our sun to create a black hole. So we can be absolutely certain that a dust cloud with the mass of a galaxy would collapse into a giant black hole.
- Let’s now take this process a little further. If an expanding universe with a very smooth distribution of gas and dust, as proposed by the big bang, did somehow miraculously begin to collapse in localized areas, there is nothing stopping the process from accelerating further into a total cosmic collapse back into a singularity, from whence it started. To claim that it could have taken place in a localized area, but not at a cosmic level, in a universe vastly smaller than today’s is to avoid the obvious.
- The reason why the speed of light was invoked in between the two expansions is to help explain the homogeneity (uniformity) in temperature across the universe. If this homogenization affected temperature, it had to also affect matter in the same way. Any fluctuations in matter density would have been eliminated in the second inflation. This leaves us with no localized clumps of matter to form galaxies.
7. THE ROTATING UNIVERSE
The force of the big bang took matter outward and continues to do so today. Thus all matter and energy in the universe moves outward in all directions.
The earth rotates every 24 hours. The sun rotates every 29 days. In fact all objects in the universe rotate. All rotations must have a cause since motion only occurs if a force acts on an object. The big bang theory cannot produce any net rotational movement in objects. This is because the initial expansion originated from a single point, and nothing was restricting it, so the force must have been equal in all directions. The most this force can produce is an outward movement of matter in all directions. However, all objects in the universe rotate. This motion has to have a cause, a force that acted on every object in the universe. Big bang theory cannot explain rotation.